Influence of Water Pollution on Living Things

OFFICIAL LABWORK REPORT OF

SCIENCE 1

INFLUENCE OF WATER POLLUTION ON LIVING THINGS

 

Arranged by :

Oktaviani Pratama Putri

10315244034

STUDY PROGRAM OF INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION

MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE FACULTY

YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY

2011

 A.    Little

Influence of Water Pollution on Living Things

B.     Goal

1. Student are able to knowing the pollutants on living things

2. Students are able to identify the characteristics of water contaminated by the indicators of the water pollution (color, smell, taste, temperature and Ph, conditions of water pollution)

3. Students are able to knowing one way of separation of mixtures

C.    Background

Can you imagine if in this world there is no water, yes of course there never was life as known today. Water is absolutely Necessary in the lives of Humans and other living Things. Without water life can not last, Because water is the source of everything. In daily life We need clean water for drinking, cooking, washing and other purposes. Water has a standard 3T is colorless, odorless, and nontoxic. But Sometimes We see the water turbid colorless and odorless and is Often mixed with objects Such as garbage cans, plastics, and organic wastes. Sights like these We meet at dikolam-streams or ponds. The water is so called dirty water or polluted water is also Called.

D.    Basic Theory

Water pollution is the deviation of the properties of water from the normal state, rather than purity. Water spread in the nature can never in its pure form, but that does not mean all the water has been polluted. Surface water and well water usually contains dissolved metals such as Na, Mg, Ca, and Fe. Water containing component-the component in a high number of so-called hard water.

Water that does not pollute, is not always the pure water, but it is water that contains no foreign substances in an amount exceeding certain limits are set up so that water can be used normally for a particular purpose. The existence of objects- a foreign object resulting water can not be used normally called pollution.

Normal water actually has no sense. The emergence of a distorted sense is usually caused by pollution, and a distorted sense is usually associated with the testing of the sense of smell because the water is rarely done. Water that has an abnormal odor is also considered to have a sense that is not normal.

The causes of water pollution. The cause of pollution (pollutants) of water are as follows:

1. Phosphate

Phosphate derived from the excessive use of artificial fertilizers and detergents.

2. Nitrate and Nitrite

Both of these compounds derived from the use of artificial fertilizers
Redundant and the process of decomposition of organic material.

3. Poliklorin biphenyls (PCBs)

These compounds are derived from the utilization of materials – materials lubricants, plastics and electrical appliance.

4. Pesticide Residues Organiklorin

These residues are derived from spraying pesticides on crops for
Kill the insects.

5. Oil and Hydrocarbon

Oil and hydrocarbons can come from leaks in the wheel and
tanker.

6. Radio nuclides

Radio nuclides or radioactive elements derived from the leakages
radioactive waste storage tanks.

7. Heavy metals

Heavy metals derived from industrial chemicals, mining and petrol.

8. Agricultural Waste

Derived from agricultural waste and animal waste storage fodder.

9. Human waste

Human waste from human excreta disposal channels.

Characteristics of water

Clear water that we see everyday, which we used to drink, whether it were really healthy and well worthy of our consumption? Where did we know that water is clean. Quoting the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number 1405/menkes/sk/xi/2002 of Work Environment Health Requirements Office and the industry there is an understanding of the Clean Water: water that is used for everyday purposes and quality to meet the health requirements of clean water in accordance with laws and law and regulations and can be drunk when cooked.

Here we categorize clean water only for a decent consumption, not worthy to be used as a support activity such as for toilets. Because the standard water used for consumption is clearly higher than for purposes other than consumption. There are several requirements that need to be known about the water quality of the physical, chemical and microbiological.

  1. Physical requirement, among others:
    1. Water should be clean and not muddy
    2. Not any color
    3. Does not taste anything
    4. Odorless apaun
    5. Temperatures between 10-25 C (cool)
    6. Not leave the sediment
  2. Terms of chemicals, among others:
    1. Does not contain chemicals that contain toxins
    2. Does not contain chemicals that excessive
    3. Enough iodine
    4. water pH between 6.5 to 9.2
  3. Terms of microbiology, among others:

Does not contain the germs of diseases such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, and bacterial pathogens that cause disease. As we know if the water quality standards are above the standard or in accordance with these standards then what happens is going to determine the size of the investment in the provision of clean water, good water purification installation and operation and maintenance costs. So the bad quality of water is becoming increasingly heavy burden on society to pay the price of clean water. In the provision of clean water suitable for consumption by many people cite Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No.. 173/Men.Kes/Per/VII/1977, water supply must meet the quantity and quality, namely:

  1. Safe and hygienic.
  2. Good and decent drink.
  3. Available in sufficient quantities.
  4. The price is relatively cheap or affordable by most people

Parameters that are used for the method in the treatment process, operations and costs. Water is an important parameter is the physical parameters, chemical, biological and radiological, as follows:

1. Water Parameters in Physics

a. Turbidity

b. Color

c. Taste & odor

d. Sediment

e. Temperature

2. Parameters of Water in Chemistry

a. Organic, among other things: carbohydrates, oils / fats / greases, pesticides, phenols, proteins, detergents, etc..

b. Inorganic, such as: hardness, chlorides, heavy metals, nitrogen, pH, phosphorus, sulfur, toxic materials.

c. Gases, such as: hydrogen sulfide, methane, oxygen.

3. Parameters of Water in Biology

a. Bacterium

b. Animal

c. Vegetation

d. Protists

d. Virus

4. Radiological parameters of the Clean Water

a. Conductivity or conductivity

b. Pesistivitas

c. PTT or TDS (The ability of water to conduct electricity)

With these standards so that our consumption of water use will be safe for our health, therefore be selective for the sake of human health and our survival. May be useful.

Sources of Water Pollution

Sources of water pollution, among others, are:

1. Industrial waste

Industrial waste as a potential cause of water pollution. In general, industrial waste containing waste B3, which is hazardous and toxic materials. According to article 99 of 18 PP 1, B3 waste is a residue of a business or activity that contain hazardous and toxic materials that could contaminate or damage the environment so that endanger the health and survival of human beings and other creatures

2. Agricultural waste

Fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers to treat the plants. However, the use of excessive fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate water. Wastes containing phosphate fertilizers that can stimulate the growth of water weeds such as algae and water hyacinth. The growth of water weeds are not controlled as it raises the impact of pollution caused by detergents.

3. Household waste

Domestic sewage containing domestic waste organic waste and inorganic waste and detergent. Organic waste is waste that can be broken down or decomposed by bacteria. For example the remains of vegetables, fruits, and leaves. While like papper inorganic garbage, plastic, glass or glass, fabrics, woods, metals, rubber, and leather. This waste can not be broken down by bacteria (non biodegrable). Organic waste is discharged into the river causing the reduced amount of dissolved oxygen, because most of the bacteria used for the process of decomposition. If the inorganic waste dumped into rivers, sunlight can be blocked and impede the process of photosynthesis of aquatic plants and algae, which produce oxygen. And detergents is the most potential residential waste pollute the water. At this time almost every household detergents, detergent wastewater is very difficult when broken down by bacteria.

Dangers Of Water Pollution Due to as a result of water pollution caused by:

  1. Disruption of aquatic organisms due to the reduction, the oxygen content
  2. Explosion of algae and aquatic plants (eurotrofikasi)
  3. Shallowing bottom water
  4. Clogging the filter reservoir, and causing ecological changes
  5. In the long run are cancer and birth defects
  6. Due to the excessive use of pesticides according to pests and diseases but to kill, kill insects and creatures are also useful, especially predators
  7. The death of an ancient biota, such as plankton, fish, birds and even
  8. Cell mutations, cancer, and leukeumia

Efforts to Overcome and Prevent Water Pollution

1. Forbidden to dispose of garbage or waste into the water (river)
2. Avoid the use of drugs eradication of insect pests and excessive.
3. Manage the production of waste material that produces a minimum

The nature of the pollutants are:

  1. damage for a while, but when it reacts with the substance does not damage the environment more
  2. damaging in the long term.

For example if the concentration of Pb does not damage low. But in the long term, Pb can accumulate in the body to levels that damage.

Water pollution

Water pollution can be caused by several types of pollutants as follows.

  1. Disposal of industrial waste, residual insecticides, and disposal of domestic waste, for example, residual detergents pollute water. Industrial waste such as Pb, Hg, Zn, and CO, can accumulate and are toxic.
  2. Organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in the water causes 02 is reduced thereby disrupting the activity of living organisms in the water.
  3. Phosphate results of decay along h03 and agricultural fertilizers accumulate and lead to eutrophication, namely accumulation of minerals that cause the rapid growth of algae (Blooming algae). As a result, plants in the water can not photosynthesize because sunlight is blocked.

One of the pollutants in the sea there is oil spills, oil tanker accidents often occur. Many aquatic organisms are dead or poisoned by it. (To clean the polluted area required the coordination of various parties and the required cost. When late for his response, a growing number of human losses. In ecological terms, can disrupt marine ecosystems.
If there is contamination in the water, then the accumulation of contaminants on aquatic organisms body. The accumulation of pollutants is increasing at a larger predator organisms.
Parameter Pollution

By knowing some of the parameters which ads pads regional / area of research will be known level of contamination or whether the environment was polluted or not. Paramaterparameter which is an indicator of pollution are as follows:

1. Chemical parameters

Chemical parameters include the C02, pH, alkalinity, phosphorus, and heavy metals.

2. Biochemical parameters

Biochemical parameters include BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), ie the amount of oxygen in the water. Cars of measurement is to store the water samples of known content of oxygen for 5 days. Then the oxygen levels were measured again. BOD is used to measure the amount of organic pollutants.

The characteristics of water pollution have greatly varies depending on the type of water and pullutant or components that cause pollution. For example pollution drinking water may taste will change even though change may be difficult to detect smells, odors may be incurred on the sea coast, rivers and lakes are polluted, the water animal life will be reduced in heavy polluted river water, or oil is seen floating at sea level indicate the presence of pollution. The signs of water pollution is caused by different sources and types of different pollutants.

Grouping of Air Pollution (Pollutants). To facilitate discussion of the various types of pollutants, water pollutants can be grouped on 9 groups based on differences in their properties as follows:

  1. The solid
  2. Waste materials that require oxygen (oxygen-demanding wastes)
  3. Microorganisms
  4. Synthetic organic components
  5. Plant nutrient
  6. Oil
  7. Inorganic compounds and minerals
  8. Radioactive materials
  9. Heat

    Properties of Water Polluted. To determine whether a polluted water or not, the necessary testing to determine the properties of water so it can be known whether there are deviations from the constraints of water pollution. The properties of water are commonly tested and can be used to determine the level of water pollution such as:

    1. The value of pH, acidity and alkalinity
    2. Temperature
    3. Color, smell and taste
    4. The amount of solids
    5. Value of BOD / COD
    6. Pollution of pathogenic microorganisms
    7. oil content
    8. The content of heavy metals
    9. The content of radioactive material

Sources of water pollution include industrial waste, agriculture and households. There are several types of pollutants that can enter the waters of which are: materials containing germs, these materials are much needed oxygen todecomposer, organic chemicals from industrial or agricultural fertilizer waste, materials that do not sediment (sediment), and materials containing radioactive and hot. The use of insecticides such as DDT (Dichloro Diphenil Trichonethan) by farmers, to eradicate insect pests of plants and other disease agents may lead to water pollution to more. The occurrence of excessive decay can also cause pollution waters. Waste disposal can result in levels of dissolved O2 in water decreases as most used by the bacterial decay.

Disposal of organic wastes are disposed of or anorganic river constantly, besides polluting the water, especially this rainy season will cause flooding. Lately disaster because water pollution comes as if not unstoppable rainy season. Actually, rain is a blessing. However, grace can be a test if we do not true. If we observe, the water is an essential element for human nature with the nature and pervasiveness flow. If the flow is disrupted pathways and limited land, water will flow fill the spaces around the lowest. Finally there was flooding. Because it’s called water pollution because many of us who lack discipline, for example in the environment clean and litter. Floods can be divided into two due to water pollution include: inundation (flooding), caused by overflow of water flow paths (river) with a large volume of water, flood inundation of local flooding (local) due / concentration of rain water drainage area (arainase) and land limited. As a result within a certain time (temporary) water will flow around our home environment.

Filtration is the cleaning of solid particles from a fluid by passing the filtering medium, or septum, upon which the solids will be deposited. Range filtration in industries ranging from simple filtering to the separation of the complex. Filtered fluid can be either liquid or gas; flow escapes from the sieve may be liquids, solids, or both. One time it solid waste that must be separated from the liquid waste before disposal. In the industry, the feed solids content has a range from just a trace up to a large percentage. Often the bait modified through some initial processing to increase the rate of filtration, eg by heating, crystallization, or install additional equipment on the filter such as cellulose or ground diatomae. Therefore, varieties of materials that must be filtered diverse and different process conditions, many types of filters have been developed, some types are described below.

Fluid flow through the filter media due to the differential pressure through the media. Filters can operate on:

• Pressure on top of the atmosphere at the top of the filter media.

• Operating pressure at the top of the filter media.

• Vacuum at the bottom.

Above atmospheric pressure can be carried out by the force of gravity on the liquid in a column, using a pump or blower, or by centrifugal force. Centrifugal filter discussed in the next section in this chapter. In a gravity filter media filter could be no better than a filter (screen) with a rough or coarse particles such as sand bed. Gravity filters in the industry restricted to a liquid crystal rough flow, drinking water purification and wastewater treatment. Most filters are industrial filter press, vacuum filters, or centrifugal separators. These filters operate in continuous or discontinuous, depending on whether the effluent from the solids filtered steady (steady) or intermittently. Most of the operating cycle of the filter discontinuous, fluid flow through the equipment continuously, but must be stopped periodically to remove accumulated solids. In the filter continuous solid or fluid waste is not stopped during the operation of equipment.
Filters are divided into three main groups, namely the filter cake (cake), filter purification (clarifying), and cross-flow filter (crossflow). Separating solids filter cake with a relatively large amount as a crystal or a mud cake. Often the filter is equipped to clean up the cake and to clean the fluid from the solids prior to discharge. Purification filter cleaning small amounts of solids from a gas or liquid splashes such clear beverages. Solid particles trapped in the filter medium or on its outer surface. Different purification filter with normal filter, which has a medium pore diameter larger than the particle filter to be removed. In the cross-flow filter, the feed suspension flows with particular pressure on the filter medium. A thin layer of solids can be formed on the surface of the medium, but the high velocity of the liquid prevents the formation of layers. Membrane filter medium is ceramic, metal, or polymer with pores small enough to hold most of the suspended particles. Most of the fluid flowing through the medium as the filtrate is clear, leaving the suspension. Further discussion, an ultra filter, the unit contains a cross-flow membrane with very small pores, is used for separating and concentrating colloidal particles and large molecules.

E.     Tools and Materials

1. 600 ml of contaminated water (river water, sewage and waste water washing)

2. Gravel

3. Sand

4. Coir from coconut

5. Charcoal

6. Cotton

7. Fish

8. Plastic cups

9. Plastic bottles

10. 3 glass beaker

11. pH sticks

12. Thermometer

13. Stopwatch

F.     Procedures

1. Observe each of the contaminated water samples (condition, color, smell, temperature, taste and pH)

2. Take 250 ml sample of polluted water, and then separate it (series of equipment for separate the mixture, according to the tools and materials available)

3. Prepare a glass beaker 3 pieces, each filled with clean water, waste water and filtered water

4. Enter in each beaker glass 2 fish

5. Observe changes that occur in susceptible fish in a certain time (2 minutes once every 20 minutes)

G.    Data of Experiment

Name condition color smell Temperature pH flavor
sewage Many contaminants in the form of substances that cause water to become turbid Not clear, tend to be brown (+) Smelly droppings (urine) 30°C 8  
River water Many contaminants of soil, resulting in turbid Not clear, tend to be brown (++) smelling soil 32°C 8  
dishwater A lot of soapy water bubbles on the surface Somewhat murky gray Smelling fragrance (detergents) 29°C 10  

 

Time Clean water Waste water Filtered water
initial (0 minutes) Quiet, ordinary Aggressive, active, faster gill opening and the width Aggressive, active
2 minutes Quiet Active, more rapid gill opening active
Quiet Quiet Active, more rapid gill opening and the width Quiet, but the gills more rapidly than distilled water
6 minutes Quiet Active, fast and wide gill opening Quiet, but the gills rapidly than distilled
8 minutes Quiet, ordinary less aggressive Quiet
10 minutes Active Weaker / less active Active
12 minutes Active Weaker Active
14 minutes Quiet Active Quiet
16 minutes Quiet, but sometimes do more and move up and down Active, moving up and down Active at any time

 H.    Discussions

Praktikum yang dilaksanakan di Laboratorium IPA 2 pada hari Kamis 20 Oktober 2011 berjudul “Influence of water pollution on living things” memiliki tujuan antara lain mampu mengetahui polutan pada makhluk hidup, mampu mengidentifikasi karakter air yang terkontaminasi oleh indicator pencemar air (warna, bau, rasa, suhu dan pH, kondisi pencemaran), dan mampu mengetahui salah satu cara pemisahan campuran. Beberapa alat dan bahan yang kami gunakan dalam praktikum ini adalah 600mL of contaminated water (river water, sewage and waste water washing) drinking water, gravel, sand, coir from coconut, charcoal, cotton, fish, plastic cups, plastic bottles, 3 glass beaker, pH sticks, thermometer, and stopwatch.

Seperti yang telah kita ketahui semua polusi atau pencemaran lingkungan adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya makhluk hidup, zat energi, dan atau komponen lain ke dalam lingkungan, atau berubahnya tatanan lingkungan oleh kegiatan manusia atau oleh proses alam sehingga kualitas lingkungan turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan lingkungan menjadi kurang atau tidak dapat berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya. Zat atau bahan yang dapat mengakibatkan pencemaran disebut polutan. Polutan sendiri dapat berupa debu, bahan kimia, suara, panas, radiasi, makhluk hidup, zat-zat hadil dari makhluk hidup, dsb. Dan bila polutan berlebihan, ekosistem tidak dapat seimbang dan tidak dapat melakukan regenerasi (pembersihan sendiri). Syarat-syarat suatu zat disebut polutan bila keberadaannya dapat menyebabkan kerugian terhadap makhluk hidup. Contohnya, karbon dioksida dengan kadar 0,033% di udara berfaedah bagi tumbuhan, tetapi bila lebih tinggi dari 0,033% dapat memberikan efek merusak. Suatu zat dapat disebut polutan apabila: jumlahnya melebihi jumlah normal, berada pada waktu yang tidak tepat, berada pada tempat yang tidak tepat. Sifat polutan adalah merusak untuk sementara, tetapi bila telah bereaksi dengan zat lingkungan tidak merusak lagi, merusak dalam jangka waktu lama. Contohnya Pb tidak merusak bila konsentrasinya rendah. Akan tetapi dalam jangka waktu yang lama, Pb dapat terakumulasi dalam tubuh sampai tingkat yang merusak. Sedangkan polusi air adalah peristiwa masuknya zat, energi, unsur atau komponen lainnya kedalam air sehingga kualitas air terganggu. Kualitas air terganggu ditandai dengan perubahan bau, rasa dan warna, sehingga tidak murni lagi.

Beberapa contoh polutannya sebagai berikut :

1. Fosfat

Fosfat berasal dari penggunaan pupuk buatan yang berlebihan dan deterjen.

2. Nitrat dan Nitrit

Kedua senyawa ini berasal dari penggunaan pupuk buatan yang berlebihan dan proses pembusukan materi organic.

3. Poliklorin Bifenil (PCB)

Senyawa ini berasal dari pemanfaatan bahan-bahan pelumas, plastik dan alat listrik.

4. Residu Pestisida Organiklorin

Residu ini berasal dari penyemprotan pestisida padaa tanaman untuk membunuh serangga.

5. Minyak dan Hidrokarbon

Minyak dan hidrokarbon dapat berasal dari kebocoran pada roda dan kapal pengangkut minyak.

6. Radio Nuklida

Radio nuklida atau unsur radioaktif berasal dari kebocoran tangki penyimpanan limbah radioaktif.

7. Logam-logam Berat

Logam berat berasal dari industri bahan kimia, penambangan dan bensin.

8. Limbah Pertanian

Limbah pertanian berasal dari kotoran hewan dan tempat penyimpanan makanan ternak.

9. Kotoran manusia

Kotoran manusia berasal dari saluran pembuangan tinja manusia.

Pencemaran air disebabkan oleh aktifitas manusia sehari-hari yang dapat mengakibatkan adanya perubahan pada kualitas air tersebut. Tingkat pencemaran terberat adalah akibat limbah industry yang dibuang ke sungai dan juga tumpahnya minyak dilautan. Pencemaran air disungai dan dilautan ini telah menyebabkan ekosistem dan habitat air menjadi rusak bahkan mati. Untuk sungai, pembuangan limbah industri/pabrik telah merusak habitat sungai. Limbah industri mengandung logam berat, toksin organic, minyak dan zat lainnya yang memiliki efek termal dan juga dapat mengurangi kendungan oksigen dalam air. Limbah berbahaya ini selain menyebabkan kerusakan bahkan matinya habitat sungai, juga mengakibatkan timbulnya masalah kesehatan bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di sepanjang sungai yang menggunakan air sungai tersebut untuk keperluan MCK (Mandi, Cuci dan Kakus).

Selain limbah industry, limbah rumah tangga juga memiliki peranan yang besar dalam pencemaran air. Limbah rumah tangga ini terbagi menjadi dua golongan yaitu limbah organic dan limbah anorganik. Limbah organic adalah limbah yang dapat diuraikan oleh bakteri sepertisisa sayuran, buah dan daun-daunan. Sementara limbah anorganik tidak dapat diuraikan oleh bakteri seperti bekas kaca, karet, plastic, logam, kain, kayu, kulit dan lain sebagainya. Untuk pertanian, penggunaan pupuk dan pestisida yang berlebihan juga dapat mencemari air dilingkungan sekitarnya. Limbah pupuk mengandung fosfat yang dapat merangsang pertumbuhan gulma air seperti ganggang dan eceng gondok. Pertumbuhan gulma air  yang tidak terkendali  ini dapat menimbulkan dampak seperti yang diakibatkan oleh pencemaran air dan deterjen.

Bila terjadi pencemaran di air, maka terjadi akumulasi zat pencemar pada tubuh organisme air. Akumulasi pencemar ini semakin meningkat pada organisme pemangsa yang lebih besar.

Bibit-bibit penyakit berbagai zat yang bersifat racun dan bahan radioaktif dapat merugikan manusia. Berbagai polutan memerlukan O2 untuk pengurainya. Jika O2 kurang, pengurainya tidak sempurna dan menyebabkan air berubah warnanya dan berbau busuk. Bahan atau logam yang berbahaya seperti arsenat, uradium, krom, timah, air raksa, benzon, tetraklorida, karbon dan lain-lain. Bahan-bahan tesebut dapat merusak organ tubuh manusia atau dapat menyebabkan kanker. Sejumlah besar limbah dari sungai akan masuk kelaut. Polutan ini dapat merusak kehidupan air sekitar muara sungai dan sebagian kecil laut muara. Bahan-bahan yang berbahaya masuk kelaut atau samudera mempunyai akibat jangka panjang yang belum diketahui. Banyak jenis kerang-kerangan yang mungkin mengandung zat yang berbahaya untuk dimakan. Laut dapat pula tecemar oleh minyak yang asalnya mungkin dari pemukiman, pabrik, melalui sungai atau dari kapal tanker yang rusak. Akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh polusi air:

  1. Terganggunya kehidupan organisme air karena berkurangnya, kandungan oksigen
  2. Terjadinya ledakan ganggang dan tumbuhan air (eurotrofikasi)
  3. Pendangkalan dasar perairan
  4. Tersumbatnya penyaring reservoir, dan menyebabkan perubahan ekologi
  5. Dalam jangka panjang adalah kanker dan kelahiran cacat
  6. Akibat penggunaan pertisida yang berlebihan sesuai selain membunuh hama dan penyakit, juga membunuh serangga dan makhluk berguna terutama predator
  7. Kematian biota kuno, seperti plankton, iakn, bahkan burung
  8. Mutasi sel, kanker, dan leukeumia

Pengenceran dan penguraian polutan air tanah sulit sekali karena airnya tidak mengalir dan tidak mengandung bakteri pengurai yang aerob jadi, air tanah yang tercemar akan tetap tercemar dalam yang waktu yang sangat lama, walau tidak ada bahan pencemaran yang masuk. Karena ini banyak usaha untuk menajaga agar tanah tetap bersih misalnya:

  1. Menempatkan daerah industri atau pabrik jauh dari daerah perumahan atau pemukiman
  2. Pembuangan limbah industri diatur sehingga tidak mencermari lingkungan atau ekosistem
  3. Pengawasan terhadap penggunaan jenis – jenis pestisida dan zat – zat kimia lain yang dapat menimbulkan pencemaran
  4. Memperluas gerakan penghijauan
  5. Tindakan tegas terhadap perilaku pencemaran lingkungan
  6. Memberikan kesadaran terhadap masyaratkat tentang arti lingkungan hidup sehingga manusia lebih lebih mencintai lingkungan hidupnya
  7. Melakukan intensifikasi pertanian

Pada praktikum yang kami lakukan, kami menggunakan air sungai sebagai parameter pengukuran polusi air. Pencemaran air mengacu pada perubahan fisik, biologi, kimia dan kondisi badan air yang akan menganggu keseimbangan ekosistem.

Indikator atau tanda bahwa air lingkungan telah tercemar adalah adanya perubahan atau tanda yang dapat diamati yang dapat digolongkan menjadi :

  1. Pengamatan secara fisis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan tingkat kejernihan air (kekeruhan), perubahan suhu, warna dan adanya perubahan warna, bau dan rasa
  2. Pengamatan secara kimiawi, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan zat kimia yang terlarut, perubahan pH
  3. Pengamatan secara biologis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan mikroorganisme yang ada dalam air. Terdapat polutan diair dapat mengganggu ekosistem air.

Air yang baik adalah air yang tidak tercemar secara berlebihan oleh zat-zat kimia atau mineral terutama oleh zat-zat atau mineral yang berbahaya bagi kesehatan.

  1. Adanya perubahan suhu air. Air yang panas apabila langsung dibuang ke lingkungan akan mengganggu kehidupan hewan air dan mikroorganisme lainnya. Pada percobaan air sungai yang kami gunakan memiliki suhu sebesar 32°C. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa, suhu dalam air sungai yang kami gunakan cukup tinggi bagi kelangsungan kehidupan organisme maupun mahkluk hidup air lainnya, sehingga dapat menggangu ekosistem air.
  2. Adanya perubahan warna, bau dan rasa air. Air dalam keadaan normal dan bersih pada umumnya tidak akan berwarna, sehingga tampak bening dan jernih, tetapi hal itu tidak berlaku mutlak, seringkali zat-zat beracun justru terdapat pada bahan buangan industri yang tidak mengakibatkan perubahan warna pada air. Seperti air sungai yang kami pakai dalam percobaan kami, banyak kontaminan berupa tanah sehingga menyebabkan air berwarna keruh atau tidak jernih dan cenderung berwarna kecoklatan. Polutan memerlukan banyak sekali kandungan O2, akan tetapi apabila kekurangan, maka akan terjadi perubahan warna dan pembusukan. Karena proses penguraian terhadap polutan tidak akan sempurna sehingga timbulah polusi pada air. Kekeruhan juga merupakan tanda bahwa air  telah tercemar oleh koloid (bio zat yang lekat seperti getah atau lem). Lumpur, tanah liat dan berbagai mikroorganisme seperti plankton maupun partikel lainnya bisa menyebabkan air berubah menjadi keruh.
  3. Timbulnya bau pada air lingkungan secara mutlak dapat dipakai sebagai salah satu tanda terjadinya pencemaran. Bau yang terdapat pada air sungai yang kami gunakan pada percobaan kami yaitu berbau tanah, dikarenakan terdapat banyaknya kontaminan berupa tanah pada air sungai yang kami pakai ini. Apabila air memiliki rasa berarti telah terjadi penambahan material pada air dan mengubah konsentrasi ion Hidrogen dan pH air. Ph yang terdapat pada air sungai yang kami gunakan adalah sebesar 8, maka termasuk dalam air basa.

Zat-zat organik akan mengalami pembusukan menghasilkan senyawa-senyawa lain yang beracun, menurunkan kadar oksigen terlarut, meningkatkan suhu dan menurunkan keasaman (PH), warna air akan berubah menjadi coklat kehitaman dan apabila oksigen benar-benar habis akan mengeluarkan bau busuk yang menyengat.

Pada percobaan yang kami lakukan, kami menggunakan ikan sebagai parameter polusi air. Mula-mula terdapat tiga ikan yang kami masukkan pada gelas beaker yang berbeda. Dalam gelas beaker terdapat tiga jenis air yang berbeda, yaitu air sungai, air bersih (air suling) dan air sungai yang sudah mengalami proses filtrasi ( yang kami lakukan sendiri pada percobaan kami). Proses filtrasi adalah suatu proses pemisahan zat padat dari fluida (cair maupun gas) yang membawanya menggunakan suatu medium berpori atau bahan berpori lain untuk menghilangkan sebanyak mungkin zat padat halus yang tersuspensi dan koloid. Pada pengolahan air minum, filtrasi digunakan untuk menyaring air hasil dari proses koagulasi-flokulasi-sedimentasi sehingga dihasilkan air minum dengan kualitas tinggi. Disamping mereduksi kandungan zat padat, filtrasi dapat pula mereduksi kandungan bakteri, menghilangkan warna, rasa, bau, besi dan mangan. Pada proses filtrasi yang kami lakukan, kami menggunakan alat dan bahan antara lain, botol minum berukuran 1500mL sebagai alat filtrasi. Alat dan bahan untuk membuat alat penyaringan air mudah untuk diperoleh. Terdapat empat lapisan yang dipakai dalam alat penyaringan air sederhana. Yaitu batu besar, batu kerikil, arang pasir dan pasir. Diantara setiap lapisan dibatasi dengan busa (sebaiknya menggunakan ijuk/serabut kelapa). Semua bahan harus dicuci dengan bersih dan dalam keadaan kering, jika tidak akan menyebabkan air bertambah kotor. Urutan bahan-bahan tersebut dari atas sampai kebawah yaitu batu besar, batu kecil, arang pasir dan pasir. Hasil dari penyaringan pada air sungai tersebut, menghasilkan air berubah menjadi berwarna agak merah. Hal ini dikarenakan warna serabut kelapa yang kami gunakan berwarna agak kemerahan. Penyaringan tidak menjamin air menjadi jernih, karena pada percobaan kami melakukan penyaringan hanya satu kali saja. Tetapi jika penyaringan dilakukan berulangkali, bisa menghasilkan hasil penyaringan tersebut menjadi jernih. Pada proses penyaringan yang kami lakukan, bahan-bahan yang kami gunakan sebagai alat penyaringan tersebut mampu menyerap atau mengikat kontaminan pada air sungai tersebut sehingga bisa mengurangi jumlah kontaminan pada air sungai tersebut. Kemudian setelah proses penyaringan pada air sungai yang kami lakukan selesai, kami mulai mengamati aktifitas dan kondisi ikan pada masing-masing jenis air tersebut dalam waktu selama 16 menit kami amati dan tiap dua menit kami mengamati aktifitas dan keadaan ikan dalam air tersebut. Dihasilkan bahwa ikan pada air sungai lebih agresif, aktif, pembukaan insang lebih cepat dan lebar tetapi pada waktu-waktu tertentu ikan ini terlihat kurang aktif/ melemah, kemudian pada waktu pengamatan kami yang terakhir, terlihat ikan tersebut aktif bergerak dan melakukan perpindahan naik turun. Dalam air sungai tanpa melalui proses penyaringan ini, terlihat ikan kurang stabil sehingga aktif bergerak. Sedangkan untuk ikan yang terdapat pada air sungai yang sudah mengalami penyaringan, kondisi ikan terlihat agresif, aktif, tenang tetapi pergerakan insang lebih cepat daripada ikan yang terdapat pada air suling. Kondisi ikan pada air sungai yang telah mengalami penyaringan lebih tenang dan stabil daripada kondisi ikan yang terdapat pada air sungai yang belum mengalami proses penyaringan. Hal ini dikarenakan berkurangnya kandungan oksigen (O­2), sehingga akan mengakibatkan terganggunya kehidupan organisme air, karena polutan memerlukan banyak sekali kandungan O2, sehingga polutan tersebut menyerap oksigen yang terdapat pada air sungai tersebut. Pada kondisi ikan yang terdapat pada air suling (bersih) terlihat ikan lebih tenang, biasa dan aktif bergerak dengan baik, hal ini disebabkan karena kandungan oksigen pada air bersih ini masih cukup dan memadai untuk kehidupan ekosistem hewan air dan belum terdapat polutan yang dapat mengganggu kehidupan ekosistem air, tetapi terkadang ikan ini melakukan pergerakan yang lebih dan naik turun.

I.       Conclusions

1. Pollutants on living things

a. Various types of chemicals and process industries such as Phosphate, Nitrate and Nitrite, Poliklorin biphenyls (PCBs), Pesticide Residue Organiklorin, Oil and Hydrocarbons, radio nuclides, Heavy Metals

b. Agricultural waste such as excessive use of pesticides

c. Human waste / human activities conducted such as household waste

2. Identification of water contaminated by pollutants:

a. Water conditions: many contaminants such as land, causing turbid.

b. The color of water: not clear, tend to brown, due to many contaminants such as land, causing the river water slightly brown in color

c. The smell of water: smelling the ground, because there are many contaminants that cause odor of ground water is smelling soil.

d. Temperature of water: river water we use has a temperature of 32 ° C. This shows that, the temperature in the river water we use is high enough for the survival of living organisms and other aquatic living beings, so it can disrupt aquatic ecosystems.

e. pH: pH of river water that we use at 8, suggesting that river water is alkaline water. Other compounds that are toxic, lower levels of dissolved oxygen, increased temperature and lower the acidity (pH),

3. One way or filtering the mixture separation is by filtration. filtration is a process of separating solids from a fluid (liquid or gas) that brought him to use a porous medium or other porous materials to remove as much as possible of fine suspended solids and colloids. At the screening process that we do use the tool 1500mL bottles as screening tools and materials used include large rocks, small rocks, charcoal, sand and sand. The screening process is done repeatedly to produce a clear result of screening. The material contained in a simple screening tool is able to absorb and bind water contaminants found in the river so as to reduce contaminants found in the river water.

 J.      References

Diunduh dari http://www.kelair.bppt.go.id/Publikasi/BukuAirMinum/BAB6AIRSUNGAI.pdf pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

Diunduh dari http://irizlovely.blogspot.com/2010/08/sifat-air-tawar.html pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

Diunduh dari http://nurulmisti.blogspot.com/2009/12/percobaan-pencemaran-air.html pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

Diunduh dari http://www.chem-is-try.org/materi_kimia/kimia-lingkungan/pencemaran-air/pengaruh-pencemaran-air-terhadap-hewan-tumbuh-tumbuhan-dan-tubuh-manusia/ pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

Diunduh dari http://filterpenyaringair.com/indikator-tanda-air-tanah-yang-tercemar/ pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

Diunduh dari http://www.scribd.com/doc/24234034/PENCEMARAN-AIR-Sumber-Dampak-dan-Penanggulangannya pada hari Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011, jam 08.02 AM

3 pemikiran pada “Influence of Water Pollution on Living Things

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